Tree Planting and Forest Renewal in West Nile sub-region

                                                A brief historical back ground.

There is supporting evidence to suggest that West Nile sub-region, which was once known as West Nile District and then West Nile Province, like many other parts of Uganda, was once such a lush green wilderness, before and for some time, during the Colonial era. The whole region was well covered with all sorts of flora and fauna. There were huge areas covered with patches of old growth forests and tall savannah grassland, stretching for miles across the entire breadth and width of the sub-region.

Here, one would find many herds of wild life, of various kinds, roaming freely, whatsoever. Of them all, the most outstanding were not lions, or elephants, or wild buffaloes, but white rhinos.  The West Nile sub-region became famously well known, around the world, mainly because of these white rhinos.

There were many wetlands, large and small, spread right across the West Nile sub-region. Such were sources of many small and large streams, certain of which formed small rivers that have since been the tributaries of River Nile, which for many years has been a major source of   the best fishing, the people of the West Nile sub-region have had, until recently when fish stocks have reportedly declined, causing many in local fishing communities, to loose one of their main sources of income and a livelihood.

In the fifties, or perhaps even a little earlier than that, there started to appear, what at first didn’t seem to be  an issue, with local communities, when old growth forest trees were being harvested by various enterprises, which sprang up in West Nile sub-region around this period.

One of the earliest such instances may have occurred as a result of the prevalence of diseases, such as Malaria and Sleeping sickness, which became a big problem, for the then local Colonial Administration, to effectively manage. Yet, many a person was dying from the onslaught of such diseases, in the area, forcing the local government institutions, to take action, to clear forest lands of trees and bushes, hoping to eliminate breeding grounds for mosquitoes and tsetse flies.

In addition to cutting down trees for timber and other localized uses, such as fuel wood, mainly for cooking and heating, or for building houses, local bridges and so forth, soon there was a need to clear large areas of woodland, suspected to be breeding grounds for mosquitoes, blamed for causing Malaria and tsetse flies, which cause sleeping sickness.

As if this was not already a serious issue, a new demand for the use of old growth trees was suddenly imposed on the people of the West Nile sub-region, under the impression that local small-holder, (would be farmers), were to benefit, from a new cash crop, which they would be expected to grow, as a better means of earning a living. And what was to be this genial crop and how was it to use trees, or fuel wood for that matter?  The people of the West Nile sub-region were in a big surprise. A whole new world of earning a living was afoot, largely unknown to many.

                                                   Impact of tobacco production.

In 1953, or so, tobacco crop was introduced into the West Nile sub-region, by British American Tobacco company, best known simply as B.A.T., although today it’s name has been changed to B.A.T. Uganda Ltd.  Ever since then, the B.A.T. Uganda Ltd. has remained synonymous with the growing of flue-cured tobacco in the West Nile sub-region and now also in other parts of Uganda.

Flue-cured tobacco requires the burning of a lot of wood, to eventually drying the tobacco leaves, in accordance to standards set by the B.A.T. Uganda Ltd. For many years, since the introduction  of tobacco crop in the West Nile sub-region, large acres of old growth woodland have simply vanished into thin air, as a result of excessive and extensive felling of such trees, in the West Nile sub-region.

During all this long period of   deforestation, there were basically no plans to replenish the natural forest, as such. As a result right now, the entire West Nile sub-region looks as if sooner than later, we might be having a semi desert on our hands, if and when we fail to mitigate in time, this troublesome destruction of the natural environment.

Long ago most rural, small peasants used poor agricultural practices, which also had serious environmental consequences, due mainly to slash and burn. This method was widely used so much so that in the long run, there were vast tracts of land that became barren and unable to support the production of crops, for extended period of times.

In addition to this bad practices of land uses, crop rotation methods were non existent, because local peasant farmers were left on their own, without any form of agricultural training or advice. Therefore, the over cropping resulted in depletion of top soils and made devoid of nutrients, rendering  the land unsuitable and unsustainable for growing of crops.

Many peasants in rural communities kept many herds of cattle, goats and or sheep. Over the years the numbers of these domestic animals increased, resulting in over grazing and imminent depletion of the top soils, which was further aggravated by soil erosion, due mainly to heavy rains and wind action, especially in the dry seasons, particularly during prolonged periods of draughts.

As rural communities expanded in sizes of settlements and so did the need to acquire more fresh land from any existing forests and woodlands, for agricultural use. Eventually, population pressures had direct impact on forest cover and land uses. The idea of tree planting was out of the question by then and even today, planting of trees is still not widely practiced in Uganda as a whole, although the situation is gradually improving, as more and more awareness of the urgent need for reforestation and forestation is generated and steadily gaining ground, with more and more communities being mobilised and sensitised across the country, to participate in this long neglected civil exercise and civic responsibility.

                                                     Impact of cotton production.

Even cotton production in the West Nile sub-region, ever since it was introduced as another major cash crop, also during the Colonial rule in Uganda, has played a significant role in environmental degradation of this sub-region.

Excessive use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides, the most notorious of which has been, the much dreaded D.D.T., seriously contributed to a massive depletion of the top soils, in most of the West Nile sub-region.

Despite the fact that many industrial, developed countries around the world, including the United States, Britain and a host of others, had effectively banned the use of D.D.T., in their own countries, it has since remained in use in Uganda, to this very day.

There is overwhelming scientific evidence of the destructive impact on the natural environment, of industrial use of D.D.T. and other chemical fertilizers and pesticides, as has been applied by many different farmers, including local rural peasants, in many parts of Uganda, of which the West Nile sub-region, is a part for that matter.

In the West Nile sub-region alone, the impact on wildlife, (including a variety of animal, bird and insect species), and fisheries, is very troubling, even for a non scientific observer, like myself, (the writer of this article). As their natural habitants continued to be destroyed, one way or the other, or another, and so did these species loose their numbers. With many wildlife species vanishing from the face of the West Nile sub-region, almost forever, it has been a setback for local game viewing tourism.

Hopefully, something can be done, to restock all existing wildlife reserves and the only Game Park. May be there is hope, is if we can take appropriate actions, to mitigate some of these environmentally destructive processes, we might perhaps, restore our natural environment and save our own world and lives.        

Unfortunately that was not to be the end of destruction to the natural environment, in many parts of the West Nile sub-region. Over the recent past, the West Nile sub-region has seen a fair share of an influx of numerous refugees, arriving from Southern Sudan and Eastern Congo, fleeing from civil wars and political turmoil in those neighbouring countries. However, many of these refugees had to be resettled in areas where previously there were still little patches of dry forest woodland.

The whole refugee communities had a free reign on whatever trees, were left in these areas, to the detriment of the local environment. There is an overwhelming amount of documented research evidence, of the environmental impact of these refugee settlements in various parts of West Nile.

The most affected districts are, Adjumani, Koboko, Maracha/Terego, Moyo and Yumbe. According to a recently completed survey, by Uganda’s Forestry Authority, the districts of Koboko, Moyo and Yumbe have been devastated and are in need of urgent attention and action, to reverse their steady slide into semi arid landscapes.

The report simply confirms the earlier evidence of massive deforestation, which had taken place in this region, as was asserted in a comprehensive research paper, headed by a British scholar, following numerous complaints by local people, to the resident representative of UNHCR, accusing refugees from Southern Sudan, of massive destruction of trees in the areas where they were being resettled.

A combined effect of all these unsustainable depletion of trees, agricultural land, wetland ecosystems, streams and local rivers and the natural wilderness and wildlife, in the West Nile sub-region, has left a very bitter taste in the mouths of many a person, in West Nile sub-region. Most are angry with the way their land has been grotesquely abused over such a long time that nobody has the trouble, to fire the first warning shot, to alert them of any impeding, environmental consequences, to those who call the West Nile sub-region home.

It is absurd and indeed heart wrenching to say the least, to see most of the West Nile sub-region deeply scared, through such destructive forces that it may not recover quickly, unless some drastic measures are taken to rectify the situation and find some long term solutions, to the continued degradation of the environment.

                                           The current state of the environment.

It is no longer surprising for anyone who knew or had known what the West Nile sub-region was once like, to see or realize the extent of environmental destruction that has taken place over the past several years, simply because nearly all indigenous trees, which once grew and thrived in this part of Uganda, are almost non existent, except for a few varieties, which are unevenly scattered all over the place. Yet, travelling through the West Nile sub-region, feels like one is nearing some out lying areas of a semi desert of sorts, but what is exceptional is that, one could still seek some amount of consolation in what increasingly seems and certainly feels like a savannah short grassland, temporarily growing on badly depleted soils, following a massive destruction of vegetation cover.

Except for a number of eucalyptus forest groves, planted and owned by one of the leading tobacco companies in Uganda, the B.A.T. Uganda Ltd., (which sells the fuel wood to local tobacco growers) and small patches of wood lots of eucalyptus trees, (mainly grown and owned by individual small holder farming communities), there is not much of a real meaningful tree cover to be found throughout most of the West Nile sub-region.

Current efforts to make the B.A.T. Uganda Ltd. accountable, for this massive mess, have fallen on deaf ears, despite an overwhelming evidence that their actions have had a direct impact, in degrading and destroying the natural environment in the West Nile sub-region, since they introduced the tobacco crop in the sub-region, which directly led to a ferocious destruction of old growth forest woodland, in the West Nile sub-region, for more than 50 years.

The problem of a shortage of fuel wood in the sub-region has increasingly become so urgent that small holder tobacco peasant farmers are resorting to cutting down mango trees and shea nut trees,   but the question that begs to be asked is, “Why are the local peasant-farmers destroying such valuable trees, which are know to provide so much, in form of natural food sources and other useful products, which we can obtain from these particular trees?”

Shea nut trees take a long time to grow to maturity, before they start to produce fruits. From the fruits are derived a number of by products, such as shea butter and or locally produced oil, which is used for cooking and as an ointment, applied to an injury, when mixed with some herbs and or roots, believed to hold some medicinal characteristics considered valuable for treatment of human ailments.  

Amid the doom and gloom of massive and extensive environmental destruction, there may be some good news, for those of us who care about environmental conservation and protection, in that a local non governmental and non profit, community minded organization has been formed, in the West Nile sub-region, in defence of conservation and protection of shea nut trees.

Project Green Villages Africa Institute hopes to work with this fairly new group, to ensure that not only shea nut trees, but all other tree species must be protected, conserved and managed in a sustainable way, by ensuring their proper and responsible use.

Another good example of a sustainable use of trees, (in this case mango trees), is that in the sixties (when most of us lived in the rural communities), my late mother made one of the best, if not the best tasting local gin from ripened mangoes. She used the income generated from the sales of such a charming gin, (which was drunk mainly by our local teachers and village peasant-farmers), to pay for our school fees and of course, our school uniforms. Yet, she did not have to cut down a whole lot of trees to make her gin, unlike what tobacco farmers have done over a half a century, which has left vast land surfaces in the West Nile sub-region in utter ruins.

On the other hand, my late parents along with family members, (including myself and scores of our relatives), willingly and actively took part in felling off old growth trees, in and around Lodonga and Drajini sub-counties, of Yumbe District, (on advice and recommendations from the tobacco company, B.A.T. Uganda Ltd.), as my family was once involved in the difficult work of growing tobacco, in the area. Flue-cured tobacco production has since consumed millions of trees in the West Nile sub-region and other tobacco growing sub-regions, in Uganda. This has been all at the expense of the natural environment, which has been blighted all along.

I take blame and responsibility, (on behalf of my family and friends), in previously engaging in unsustainable agricultural practices. I am determined to redress the past wrongs done to the natural environment, in the sixties and seventies. Hence, my continuing struggle and commitment to see that, this initiative to plant millions of new trees, across the West Nile sub-region, is carried out to the bitter end.

I am now a confessed and avid environmental activist and campaigner, in raising environmental awareness and drumming international and national support for rural community, environmental conservation, protection and sustainable management, throughout the West Nile sub-region and ultimately Uganda.

                                     Potential for a serious environmental damage.     

Following many years of continuous destruction of forest cover and major woodland vegetation in West Nile sub-region, has left the sub-region environmentally devastated and in near absolute ruins. Several kilometres of land have been dangerously exposed to the vagaries of ever changing weather conditions and patterns, which have become even more unpredictable in the recent past.

There is strong and sufficient evidence to suggest that, a lot of top soil has been exposed to rain water and wind action, subsequently causing massive soil erosion in different parts of the sub-region. This in turn has affected the fertility of the soils, thus becoming less and less productive, often resulting in annual crop failures in many parts of the sub-region.

Large quantities of fertile top soils, which have been washed away over many years, have been directly discharged into local water ways, causing massive silt and sediment in streams and small rivers, most of which have increasingly become shallower and narrower every year. In fact in some places, a number of these small streams have since dried up altogether.

Besides, a number of small rivers which once held a number of  local species of fish, have almost no fish to be found in them, as vital breeding grounds for the fish  have nearly been all destroyed, or badly damaged by silt. Certain small rivers which used to run year round, have now become seasonal, with dire consequences to all that depend on the waters of such rivers. Man kind and beasts alike.

Visible evidence of soil erosion is almost everywhere one dares to explore. There are more open gullies than there may have been in the fifties and sixties, for that matter. It has become increasingly windier than it used to be, with more frequent dust bowls occurring, often causing some unpleasant and sometimes destructive moments. Combined with heat inversions during the drier seasons, the environment is increasingly becoming unbearable. Dusty conditions prevail almost anywhere, across the sub-region. Rains are fewer, faster and ever more furious, often causing flush floods, which damage and destroy crops, domestic animals, homes and the exposed and fragile environment.

Land slides are becoming a common feature, whereas such were rare things or even never heard of in the past.

Needless to mention, I can assure you that the ecological systems in the West Nile sub-region, are critically on the verge of collapsing completely altogether, if we just sit there and do nothing, to reverse the dangerous slide of our natural environment, to an inferno of sorts.

Some wetlands are fast drying up, as sources of underground water that used to feed into them are also drying up, since cutting down of millions of trees, there are no longer any barriers that could hold back some of the rain water, which eventually would sink down, thus recharging the underground aquifers.

Evidence readily abounds suggesting that wildlife habitats may have been seriously compromised, in the process of deforestation, to an appalling extent that the West Nile sub-region is almost devoid of wildlife of any significance, except in a few designated and protected wildlife sanctuaries, such Ajai Game Reserve, near Rhino Camp and Otche Mountains, north of Moyo Township, to mention but a few.

In view of the above observations and many others not mentioned here, could you imagine what the environmental situation would be like in the West Nile sub-region, within just a matter of a mere 20 or 30 years from now, if no concrete steps are taken to remedy the situation? What would happen to the rural farming communities, if crops continued to fail as a direct result of such massive environmental degradation, further exacerbated by advancing of climate change? What impact would it have on the urban populations, whose numbers are continuing to swell, in different small civic centres across the West Nile sub-region, if the sub-region was to experience massive food shortages, as a direct result of the environmental distress, triggered by the horrendous destruction of trees and general vegetation cover, without massive mobilization of human efforts and other vital resources, to renew the face of the earth, through massive and extensive tree planting, throughout the entire sub-region? Can you imagine what would happen if all the water systems, from underground aquifers to wetlands, to streams and rivers dried up in the next 20 years or so? What is your take on that? Shouldn’t we be taking action now?

What are you willing to sacrifice in order to replenish the vegetation of the West Nile sub-region and restore it to its original state of natural beauty? Are you ready to make a difference, to cause change, by committing your resources, for the purposes of engaging in a programme of organized reforestation and forestation initiatives covering the whole of the West Nile sub-region? And if so, this is the time to act and act right now, without any further ado. Time is fast running out, on us.

It is important that the people of the West Nile sub-region must seize this opportunity to restore the natural environment in their sub-region, instead of waiting for governments, (central or local), or even for tobacco companies, such as the B.A.T. Uganda Ltd., to come up with plans and other resources to do the job for us.

There may be other organizations and interest groups equally interested in such a venture, but above all we the people of the West Nile sub-region, must take the lead, to prove to others that we do care a great deal, about the health of our natural environment and we are committed to do anything, and everything necessary, until the ecosystems in the entire sub-region are fully replenished and restored.

We will not give away an inch of the West Nile sub-region to further environmental destruction, whether or not, tobacco companies, such as the B.A.T. Uganda Ltd., and or any other uninterested parties, like it or not. We are prepared to fight back and fight really hard, because there is hope that we will win in the end. There is no hope without a fight, to the finish, to save our natural environment.

                                                  Strategic planning for action.

A clear plan of action is necessary as a guide line to ensure that we remain on course and at the same time succeed in our plans for complete reforestation and forestation of the West Nile sub-region and at all costs. A strategic policy frame work will be compelling and must be in place.

Every effort will be spared to make consultations with all elements of expertise in all areas of human endearvour regarding the art and business of tree planting, funding, man power mobilization, skills training, development, deployment and effective management, to maximize the tree planting exercise and successful  completion, within agreed time lines and budgetary requirements and constrains. This is a long term environmental renewal and restoration campaign.

                                                   Project Fund Creation.

As an integral part of Project Green Villages Africa Institute’s initiatives, to get involved in investing in economic and social development in the West Nile sub-region, we hope to raise a total of between $ 45,000 and $ 65,000 Canadian, which we will invest in initial stages of supporting, the creation and development of a number of localized tree nurseries and tree planting projects, which are to be spread throughout the sub-region.

This money will go directly to fund the growing and management of seedlings of a variety of trees native to the West Nile sub-region. This important exercise will be carried out in complete co-operation and collaboration with all other stake holders, from grassroots local communities, to local expertise in tree planting, already in practice on the ground.

At this point, we will not open up or establish new tree nurseries, but instead increase the production capacity of existing tree nursery facilities across the West Nile sub-region, to maximize production of seedlings and reduce their operational costs, by investing in their processes.

Our main objective is to increase the number of seedlings produced per area of land in use and also improve the quality of such seedlings, to ensure their survival rate in the field, once planted, hoping that all other aspects of the entire process are in good form, to support the survival of replanted seedlings.    

For the long term, we are looking at an estimated budget of $1 million Canadian, which will be raised within a period of between six to ten years, beginning in the second half of 2016.

                                   Creation of Sub-regional Tree Committees.

The need to establish such committees is based on the understanding that these groups will be comprised of local community representatives and technical manpower, drawn from various areas of expertise and appropriate skills levels needed to be successful in the business of tree planting and ultimate reforestation and forestation of the West Nile sub-region, as is our long term objective.

These committees will be charged with all responsibilities requiring the most successful delivery of all services related to tree planting, reforestation and forestation, right from the work of mobilizing, sensitizing and skills training of local communities, to undertake production, maintenance, management and distribution of seeds and seedlings. The planting and maintenance of newly planted seedlings, their overall care and nurturing of young trees, to ensure that, all newly planted trees are steadily growing and in good condition. In other words, the committee members will play the role of field assistants, to supervise and guide the work of all those involved in the tree planting process, which needs to be closely monitored, to avoid any pitfalls, that might compromise our efforts to succeed in this most noble of human endearvours, in history of the sub-region’s environmental conservation, protection and sustainable management.

All committees shall be required to produce and present to a central executive body, on regular basis, all reports emanating from the field, regarding the state of trees being grown and any other matters arising from such deliberations and processes. An executive body of experts will oversee the overall operation of this massive project.

                       Local community mobilization, involvement and participation.     

In order for such a massive tree planting and ultimate reforestation and forestation project to succeed, it is of paramount importance for us, to engage the support of local communities and their respective community leaders and other local stake holders, such as private land owners and local governments, to be fully involved in the entire process, including decision making, so as to enlist their input, commitment and continued support, making them feel part and parcel of the project, knowing in good time that such an important undertaking, will benefit their communities and sustain their future livelihoods and that of their children and grand children, for many years to come.

This is what social justice, equality and fairness is all about. We want to emphasize equitable distribution of responsibilities and resources, for the common good of all members of local communities.

We believe that this approach is vital because it allows members of local communities to feel empowered and to work with us as equal partners, for a common cause, expected to benefit all.

There are expected to be both short and long term benefits to these people, as there are many jobs to be created, along with numerous other incentives made available to them, once the project kicks off. So their involvement and participation is considered vital and priceless, in this noble civic exercise, demanding appropriate actions at local community levels, throughout the entire West Nile sub-region.

                                   Establishment and development of tree nurseries.

We strongly believe that the success of our project, in addition to other things, also rests on the establishment and management of vibrant and sustainable business opportunities in tree nurseries, in the West Nile sub-region. Production and sales of seeds and seedlings by private persons and or groups will be encouraged and supported by us, as an incentive for local communities to become fully involved and hopefully remain committed to the effort.

In addition to existing tree nurseries in the sub-region, we will work with local communities, professional expertise, a broad-based NGO community, local and central government representatives, other stake holders and civil society, to create several other new nurseries, in order to increase supply, hoping to meet demand, as we are expected to continue planting millions of new trees for many years to come. One of our long term tree planting goals is to plant fresh trees, native to Albert Nile, from where the waters of the Nile exit Lake Albert, all the way to where Albert Nile enters South Sudan.

Tree planting will take place on both sides of the Alberta Nile, to reinforce the river’s ecosystems, strengthen river banks, (especially where there has been serious environmental destruction, through reckless and illegal encroachment of unsustainable agricultural and fishing practices, by some members of local communities), ultimately improving water quality, bettering conditions and chances for improved fish spawning, leading to increase in the much depleted fish stocks, in the Albert Nile and elsewhere along the River Nile, in general.

                                         Promotion of the Tree planting project.

It is our avowed intention to ensure that this important project is well presented to the entire community of people living in the West Nile sub-region, where a massive tree planting is expected to be carried out in coming years.  

Following a complete tour of the region to take a final assessment of the impact of the deforestation, which has lasted for over 50 years now, we will develop a strategy to send this message of environmental devastation to all the people of the West Nile sub-region. We will explain to the people, both cause and affect of such a disturbing occurrence and what it may mean to all of us, if we do not plant millions of more new trees, to avert a further, or continued destruction and devastation of our natural environment.

Meanwhile, the region will be demarcated into different segments, rated from good to very poor, in terms of the level of environmental outlook and or damage, such that top priority will be given to those areas which are the most sensitive in ecological terms and therefore the most vulnerable to further environmental stress.

For example, such areas like water sheds, river basins, wetlands and their surrounding environments, foothills of mountainous regions, such as around Mt. Liru, Mt.Wati, Mt. Otche, Mt. Keyi and others, dried up local streams and rivers, badly eroded gullies and dry, rocky and dusty environments, where most top soils have been washed away and denuded over many years. Such areas and the like will be among the first to be replanted with new trees and or with a combination of appropriate grass and plant varieties, which are native to the West Nile sub-region.

              Raising community awareness and skills training in tree planting and care.

Once we have obtained all necessary environmental and social impact assessment and the extent of environmental damage so caused to the natural environment in the West Nile sub-region, we will then embark on building capacity, by recruiting many people, whom we will train to become group leaders, who in turn will become trainers of local communities in skills needed for tree planting and continued tree care, to ensure all seedlings planted survive and are able to grow as healthy trees.  

Using available resources within our reach, Project Green Villages Africa Institute, will reach every house hold in the West Nile sub-region, with the message of tree planting, its importance and the urgent need for everybody to participate in this most noble project, by the people, with the people and for the people of the West Nile sub-region.

There will be regular seminars, workshops, local community meetings and house to house consultations and briefings, conducted by our trained field assistants and technical support teams to make sure that a clear message reaches the people, hoping for a supportive response of their full involvement and commitment to fully participate in this civic exercise, so that we can all look forward, to achieve our goals of planting millions of new trees, to completely renew the face of the natural environment of the West Nile sub-region once and for all.    

                       Creation of jobs to provide employment for local communities.

At Project Green Villages Africa Institute, we value and consider tree planting as a decent job. We are therefore very determined to ensure that as many jobs as practically possible, will be created, so that we can provide income generating employment for the local communities, throughout the West Nile sub-region. It is good to note, with due respect that some tree planting work is already in progress, in various parts of the sub-region. This effort is highly appreciated, supported and encouraged, by Project Green Villages Africa Institute, as an equal partner.

There will be both short and long term employment, available to all those who would be interested in taking up these jobs. In addition to jobs, we will ensure that a number of practical incentives are also made available to recruited workers, to complement their incomes and as well as compensate some of their time, which they would otherwise have spent tending to their peasantry farms and related activities.

Besides, minimum wage parity, we will also introduce additional pay for exceptional performance by individual tree planters, based on high quality of work, survival rate of planted young trees, considering all other natural conditions and or factors are normal, at the time of planting season.

Incentives may range from community education and skills training, local sports programmes, social and cultural activities, medical treatment support programmes, family social support programmes, community water and sanitation improvement initiatives and some cash rewards for good work done.

The overall objective behind so many possible incentives is to inject a fresh life into the rural communities, making them more vibrant, more active, more functional and therefore more effective and productive, with more realistic hopes of improved and better lives for themselves, their children and grandchildren. Rural Communities must be supported to become more resolute and resilient, in the advent of climate change and climate challenges. Your support is vital and highly appreciated.

           This position paper was prepared and written by Mr. Augustine F. K. Yada.

   Founder/Executive Director: Project Green Villages Africa Institute: 15 – 09 – 2010.